Education System in Bangladesh
I) National Academy for Educational Management (NAEM)
This Academy is the peak preparing establishment under the MoE in charge of giving establishment preparing to BCS (general training) unit officers. it additionally gives in-benefit preparing to senior instructive overseers and educators of the auxiliary and higher optional levels. This institute is going by a Director General.
(ii) National Curriculum and Textbook Board (NCTB)
This Board is a self-governing association under the Ministry of Education (MoE). It is in charge of the advancement of educational programs, creation and appropriation of course readings at essential, auxiliary and higher optional levels.
(iii) Bangladesh Bureau of Educational Information and Statistics (BANBEIS)
This association is in charge of gathering, accumulation and spread of instructive data and insights at different levels and sorts of training. This association is the fundamental organ of the MoE in charge of gathering and production of instructive information and insights. It additionally works as the Educational Management Information System (EMIS) of the Ministry. It is additionally the National Coordinator of RINSACA (Regional Informatics for South and Central Asia).
(iv) Directorate of Inspection and Audit (DIA)
This Directorate is going by a Director and is in charge of review and review went for enhancing the standard of training of the Non-legislative organizations at the optional level.
Advance more, various self-governing bodies have an offer in the organization of training. These are :
(I) University Grants Commission (UGC)
The University Grants Commission is in charge of supervision of the general population and private colleges and portion of government stipends to them.
(ii) National University
This is an open affiliating college in charge of scholastic control of all the subsidiary schools offering courses in Graduate level Pass, Honors and Masters and for directing Bachelor Degree and Masters examinations.
(iii) Education Boards
Eight Boards of Intermediate and Secondary Education are in charge of leading general society examinations, for example, Junior School Certificate, Secondary School Certificate and Higher Secondary Certificate level open examinations. The Boards are likewise in charge of the recognization of the Non-government and private part instructive establishment.
(iv) Madrasha Education Board
This Board is in charge of leading open examinations, for example, Junior Dhakil Certificate, Dakhil and Alim levels.The Boards are likewise in charge of the recognization of the Non-government madrashas.
(v) Technical Education Board
This Board is endowed with the assignment of directing authentication and confirmation examinations in specialized instruction. The Boards are additionally in charge of the recognization of the Non-government specialized and professional instructive foundations.
(vi) Non-Governmental Teachers’ Registration and Certification Authority (NTRCA)
The NTRCA has been set up in February 2005 with the command to direct examination for the enrollment of effective applicants who might be qualified for arrangement in the non-government instructive organizations. The NTRCA has been made by the legislature with the goal of enhancing the showing nature of the non-government optional, graduate and post graduate level instructors barring open and private colleges.
Medical, Nursing and Health Education
Aims and Objectives A healthy and able population is a must for a country to move forward. For this, it needs health awareness, preventive measures to combat diseases, proper treatment and medical facilities. So proper education is essential to produce sufficient doctors, nurses, male nurses, health workers and specialists. Learners have to gain professional competency and at the same time, they have to grow up as sensitive and conscientious persons.
The aims and objectives of health education and medical, Nursing and Health Education services are:
• to produce competent doctors, nurses, specialists, consultants of high standard, dentists, health assistants and workers, health technicians and health manpower to ensure necessary medical facilities to the entire population of the country to keep them healthy and to build them up as an active population;
• to build up capable manpower to ensure the primary healthcare for all to be provided by the government;
• Since medical profession is characteristically more sensitive and is related to the physical, mental sufferings/sickness that concern the issues of life and death, the specialists and general doctors, dentists, nurses, health assistants and workers and health technicians are to be motivated and trained as to work as sensitive and conscientious human beings devoted to the service of mankind.
• The benefits of the advancement of medical sciences will be carried to the people, particularly to the rural population. To do this, extension of medical education in the forms of training and research for the specialists, general doctors, dentists, health assistants and technicians, nurses and health workers is simply essential. They will be motivated to devote themselves to social and human services.
• to ensure higher training and use of modern technology to build up qualified medical educationists and specialists to cope with the problems of ailment of the country’s population;
• to conduct medical research to invent or discover new indigenous methods for healing diseases.
- Admission test will be held to admit new students in medical colleges after the completion of HSC degree No candidate will be allowed to sit for the admission test more than twice/two years.
- Medical colleges will follow 5-year curriculam and syllabuses and 1-year of internship.
- Larger number of medical academics and specialists are required for the extension and development of post-graduate medical studies. Steps will be taken in this regard. The existing post-graduate medical courses conducted by different medical colleges will continue.
- Standard of education must be ensured in all medical colleges. Provision for sufficient equipments and instruments in the laboratories will also be ensured. Measures will be taken for other provisions required.
- The demand for nursing profession has been increasing day by day at home and abroad. So opportunities for quality nursing education and nursing training have to be extended.
- Measures will be taken to introduce B.Sc. and M.Sc. courses in nursing.
- Nursing training centers will be attached to hospital management.
- Measures will be taken for the expansion of education and skilled training for the health assistants.
- Facilities for standard paramedical education will be expanded. Minimum requirement for admission in this course will be SSC or its equivalent. With the objective of building up larger manpower, all medical college hospitals will offer courses in nursing and paramedics.
- Beside developing modern medical education, steps will be taken to improve the traditional Homeopathy, Unani and Ayurvedic medical practices.
- To ensure quality education and training in private medical colleges, there must be a proper evaluation and monitoring system. Meticulous care will be taken to evaluate the project while approving new private medical colleges. A powerful medical accreditation council will be formed with efficient and appropriately powerful personnel to evaluate and certify these institutions.
- Besides, academic institutions for physio-therapy, clinical psychology, physical medicine and psychiatry will be established.
- Steps will be taken for necessary training in electro-medical and bio-medical engineering, biophysics, medical information science and physio-therapy in view of the increasing demand of health services.
- Provision will be created for higher education for the paramedics holding diploma in medical technology.
Aims and Objectives Before the children begin their formal education , we need to create an environment conducive to the growth of the universal human dispositions like the senses of endless wonder, infinite curiosity, joy and inexhaustible fervour that reside in the deep recesses of the infantile psyche. And this environment will prepare the children mentally and physically. So, it is important to introduce pre-primary schooling to prepare them for school education. This preparatory education conducted together with other fellow-mates will create an enthusiasm for learning in the children. With this objective, a one-year pre-primary schooling must be introduced for 5+ children. Later, this will be extended up to 4+ children. The curriculum at this phase will be: • Activities aimed at inspiring children to learn and to go to the school and cultivating their finer senses; • Grooming them to be tolerant to others and to infuse in them the ideas about discipline necessary for their subsequent formal education.
- Teaching at pre-primary level will be delivered through pictures, colours, attractive and simple education materials, models, rhymes, songs, games and handiwork.
- Teaching will be conducted in a pleasant environment characterized by love and care in appreciation of children’s spontaneous vigour, spirit and their natural inquisitive faculties and curiosity. The safety of the children will have to be ensured to resist any possible physical or mental tortures on them.
- Posts for teachers and number of classrooms will be increased in every school to facilitate pre-primary schooling. But since this is an expensive endeavor and requires a long time-span, so the initiative will be implemented in phases.
- This schooling will include the instructional programs of the mosques, temples, churches and pagodas presently being conducted by the Ministry of Religious Affairs, which seek to impart religious teachings with alphabetical knowledge and modern education with moral lessons.
Aims and Objectives Primary education possesses utmost importance in our national life. Primary education is the basis of building up a skilled citizenry and the path to include the whole population within the education system. So, equal opportunities will be created to ensure access of all sections of children to primary education irrespective of ethnicity, socio-economic conditions, physical or mental challenges and geographical differences. This is the Constitutional responsibility of the state. Since this stage forms the foundation of subsequent levels of education, so delivery of quality primary education is a must. And since many of the students seek employment after this 12 stage, a strong base in primary education will equip them better in the job market.
To strengthen the general foundation of primary education at the national level, the existing discriminations among schools in regard to facilities, infrastructure constraints, lack of adequate number of teachers and the weaknesses in training will be adequately addressed. Primary education will be universal, compulsory, free and of uniform quality for all. At present 100% children cannot be given access to primary schools for economic, regional and geographical factors. By 2010-11, 100% enrollment of primary education will be ensured. At least one primary school will be established in the villages that have none.
Aims and Objectives
- to develop a curricula and textbooks imbued with the national spirit with a view to cultivate the humanistic values. A congenial and joyful environment need to be created in the schools to promote healthy physical and mental development of the children;
- to initiate a uniform and mandatory syllabus for some basic subjects to be taught in diverse types of schools delivering primary education;
- to help the students inculcate moral and spiritual values like idea of justice, sense of duty, discipline and etiquettes, non-communalism, human rights, accommodative attitudes toward corporate living, curiosity, friendliness and perseverance, and to encourage them to acquire scientific, cultural and human values and to shun superstitions;
- to ignite in them the spirit of our national liberation movement and encourage them with patriotism to dedicate themselves to nation-building;
- to make them motivated and capable of pursuing higher education through ensuring the qualitatively adequate marginal skills at respective levels of studies; To achieve this, adequate number of quality teachers will be appointed. Besides, the development of physical infrastructure, favorable social ambience, competent pedagogy, warm teachers-students relationship and the respectable status of women have to be ensured.
- to take effective steps to ensure the acquisition of essential knowledge, subject-based knowledge, life skills, attitudes, values and the sense of social awareness to meet their basic learning needs that will enable them to move ahead to the next level of education;
- Pre-vocational education will be in place from Classes VI to VIII to develop respect for manual labour and to give them some idea of vocational education.
- to facilitate learning in the mother languages of the indigenous peoples and small ethnic groups at the primary level of education;
- to initiate special monitoring for primary education especially in the backward areas;
- Equal opportunities have to be ensured for all kinds of disabled and underprivileged children.
Aims and Objectives
In the new academic structure, the secondary level of education will include Classes IX to XII. At the end of this level, students will choose different streams of higher studies according to their capabilities, or they will earn their livelihood by their acquired vocational education or they can seek further vocational skills.
The aims and objectives of secondary education are:
to help develop learners’ latent intellect and comprehensive inner faculties;
to develop a learner with competencies so that s/he can compete in the job market, especially in the economic sector of the country;
to impart quality education at this primary level to extend and consolidate the knowledge acquired during primary education to help the students acquire a strong foundation of quality higher education;
to make efforts to mitigate discriminations among various secondary educational institutions and among various socio-economic, ethnic and socially backward groups; special steps will be taken to support advancement of education in the backward regions as long as necessary;
to design, continue and implement a uniform curriculum and syllabus for the selected subjects, irrespective of streams.
Strategies Media of instruction
- At this level, the media of instruction will be Bangla, but as per the competence of any educational institution, it may also be English. For foreigners, there will be provision for teaching of easy Bangla lessons.
Curriculum, Syllabus and Textbooks:
- There will be three streams at the secondary level,general, madrasa and technical and each stream will have several branches. However, for all streams, uniformity will be maintained through some stipulated compulsory subjects, such as Bangla, English, Bangladesh Studies, General Mathematics and Information Technology. Examinations of each of these subjects of all the streams will be held with identical question papers.
- there will be some compulsory and optional subjects in each of the streams.
- To achieve excellence in the stream-related subjects, the syllabus will be designed as per needs and specific syllabus will be developed accordingly.
- An experts’ team will be constituted to prepare curriculam and syllabus for all streams.
- National Curriculum and Textbook Board will be responsible to design the uniform curriculum and prepare necessary textbooks for every stream at secondary level, excepting the special subjects of Madrasa and Vocational Education. Bangladesh Madrasa Education Board and Bangladesh Technical Education Board will be responsible for designing and preparing the textbooks and curriculum of special subjects of Madrasa and Vocational Education.
- High schools need to be added with Classes XI & XII, while higher secondary colleges will have to add Classes IX & X. For this, the number of classrooms, furniture and educational instruments will be increased. In high schools, subject-related teachers including English will be appointed to teach at higher secondary level. For the implementation of these steps, special care will be taken for supply of funds.
- Infrastructure development of the educational institutions and availability of educational materials will be ensured to deliver proper education and there will be facilities of enriched library and instruments of sports. For better management of the library, the post of a librarian will be created.
- Every school offering science subjects must have a laboratory with necessary tools and apparatus and its proper use and maintenance will be ensured.
- Appropriate facilities similar to the steps noted in the primary education section will be provided to ensure equal opportunities for the students who suffer from some limitations. Regional discriminations will be dealt with accordingly. Economic activities and development of technology
- Measures will be taken to expedite government support on a priority basis (such as salary and benefits of teachers, the instruments and materials for teaching sciences etc.) to the schools offering various subjects of science or subjects related to social sciences and business studies, such as economics, accounting and other subjects like information technology, computer sciences connected with technical education. All these subjects are closely related to economic activities and development of technology.
- Adequate number of subject-wise teachers for different streams will be selected every year by the proposed Non-Government Teachers’ Selection Commission following appropriate process of written and oral examination. This Commission will function like the Public Service Commission. Appropriate authority will appoint teachers in different institutions from the selected persons.
- Training will be arranged for all the teachers of all subjects. Teachers yet untrained need to undergo training immediately. Newly-appointed teachers will undergo primary training before they join their work. Priority will be given to the trained teachers while filling in vacancies.
- On completion of Class X, a public examination will be held on a national basis. This will be known as Secondary Examination and stipends will be awarded till Class XII based on the score of this examination. On completion of Class XII, another public
exam will be held, which will be called Higher Secondary Examination. Creative methodology will be applied to both the examinations and evaluation will be made in the grading system. Stipends for higher studies will be offered on the basis of the results in Higher Secondary Examination
Aims and Objectives
The purpose of higher education is to generate and innovate knowledge, at the same time to build up a skilled manpower. Autonomy is a must for the centre of higher studies including the universities. But it will be implemented under some set rules. A government monitoring system will be in place to monitor whether the allocated fund is being utilized in a proper way. At present, many specialists of specific areas devote their knowledge and research intensively to their specialized areas. That creates divisism in the area of knowledge. On the other hand, a counteraction also takes place leading to increasing interdependency of different branches of knowledge. As a result, science and technology, sociology, literature, arts, economics and other subjects are becoming interdependent. This is added by inventions of new technologies. Especially, with the unprecedented development of information technology and newer scientific inventions, the perception about the world is getting renewed.
In this context, no one can deny the importance of the co-ordination of knowledge that counteracts the divisism in the area. The traditional higher education system is not enough to fulfill present-day the needs of an independent country like Bangladesh. In this respect, re-structuring of the whole system is an imperative need. The non-government higher education institutions must run according to set rules so that they can deliver quality education, in particular, in the areas of science, technology and business studies.
The aims and objectives of higher education are:
- to help the students in the acquisition of world class education; to generate inquisitiveness among them and to help them grow up with human qualities;
- to help in the unhindered practice of intellectual exercises and growth of free thinking;
- to relate the realities of the country with higher education in all conceivable areas; to identify the problems of the society and state and to find out solutions to them;
- to expand the horizon of knowledge through ceaseless cultivation of knowledge and through multidimensional, original and practical research;
- to effectively introduce students to the knowledge of the modern and fast advancing world;
- to build up citizens who will possess scientific, secular, liberal, humane, progressive and forward-looking mindset;
- to innovate new areas of knowledge through cultivation, research and creativity;
- to build up a citizenry inspired by wisdom, creativity, human values and patriotism.
- After successful completion of secondary education from different streams, students will be allowed to take up higher study according to their merit, interests and aptitudes.
- Measures will be taken to provide residential facilities, special help and scholarships for the children of freedom fighters, of small ethnic communities and socially backward groups for sundry reasons.
- Academic institutions, which can ensure quality education, (such as colleges and universities) will provide higher education. Minimum qualification will not be relaxed for quota system or any other reasons.
- All necessary steps and care will be taken to improve the standard of higher education.
- 4-year Honours degree will be considered as the terminal degree and acceptable/required qualification for jobs in all sectors excepting teaching positions at higher education institutions.
- 4-year Honours course will be introduced in the colleges gradually in stead of the existing 3-year degree courses..
- Masters, M.Phil or Ph.D will be considered as specialized education. Only those interested in research and teaching positions at tertiary level will seek admission for post-graduate degrees. To ensure pursuance of research, graduate programs will be introduced in all departments of all universities. They will offer regular programs for Masters, M.Phil or Ph.D degrees. General duration of Masters. course will be one year, for M.Phil 2 years and for Ph.D, it will be 6 years from the date of registration.
- Colleges now offering Masters degrees under National University will continue to do so. But the libraries, laboratories and infrastructural facilities of these colleges have to be improved. Teachers of these colleges must have the opportunities of wide-ranging teachers’ training. The colleges that will introduce 4-year Honours degree courses will ascertain similar improvement in the areas noted above.
- English will be taught as a compulsory subject at the degree level of all colleges and universities. It will carry 100 marks/3 credits.
- Teachers and students together have to take part in research work. At the universities, special emphasis will be given on original research. Sufficient and attractive funds will be made available to the brilliant students to carry on innovative research. There will be larger number of fellowships beside the recently introduced Bangabandhu fellowship. At the same time, steps will be taken to create necessary facilities of research in the degree colleges.
- Curricula and syllabi of higher education will be updated to meet international standards. In order to expand tertiary level education, it is essential to translate standard books of modern knowledge and science into Bangla. Recognizing the national importance of such a program, urgent steps will be taken. English will remain as a medium of instruction in higher education along with Bangla.
- The scope of higher education will include subjects like defense studies, comparative theology, peace and conflict, climate change etc.
- Necessary investment in education sector will be ensured to maintain international standard of higher education. Beside the government funds, institutions of higher studies will have to make use of students’ fees and collect funds at personal levels to meet expenditures. At present, the amount of admission and tuition fees at public colleges and universities is nominal. Tuition and other fees will be determined as per the financial solvency of the parents. Poor parents and students will benefit from such a system. The guardians will have to produce proofs of their financial insolvency. Appropriate rules and regulations in this regard will be formulated.
- Scholarships will be awarded to the students according to their merit and financial solvency of their parents. Moreover, provisions will be made for meritorious students for academic bank loans at soft terms.
- Steps will be taken to update and strengthen Jute Research Institute, Textile College and University and College of Leather Technology since jute, garments and leather are the most prospective sectors in view of the developing economy of Bangladesh.
- Refreshers teachers’ training is an urgent issue. With this in view, seminar or subjectbased training will be organized in the universities during the long vacations. The teachers of colleges and universities can work together in such programs.
- Every university and college will follow a planned and fixed academic calendar. Academic calendar, containing the date of beginning of new classes, examinations and all annual activities, will be published in printed form before the commencement of the academic year.
- To uphold the quality of higher education, the private universities, proposed or approved, must maintain the standard of education, curriculum, syllabus and recruitment of teachers of high academic qualifications at par with the public universities. These universities cannot discriminate students in respect of race, religion, caste, socio-economic conditions and physical disabilities. Such institutions will not be established and conducted for profiteering. They cannot advocate anything against our freedom, spirit of war of liberation and Bengali culture and must refrain from doing anything of that kind.
- At the tertiary level, teachers will be persuaded to carry on their research in their own institutions. To strengthen research activities, measures will be taken to initiate institution-based consultancy. Teachers involved with such projects will be entitled to standard honorarium. Such activities are in place in many universities. On evaluation and assessment of these activities, a policy guideline can be formulated.
- Measures will be taken for the introduction of radio transmission, multi-information system and allocation of longer time on T.V. channels like opening a second channel of BTV, for better functioning of the Open University.